The 1980 Timewarp Finalists

By Nicholas Whyte and Colette Fozard: Over the last two weeks of October 2016, Worldcon 75 organised the 1980 Timewarp Project to test the new systems we have been developing for the new Hugo rules.We asked people to revisit of the sf and fantasy of 1979, and submit nominations as if they had been voting in the 1980 Hugos. 33 people did so, including numerous Anders and commenters on the previous File 770 post on this topic. This is our initial report of what would have been on the final ballot, if the nominations submitted had been processed by today’s rules. This does not, of course, in any way replace the real Hugo Final Ballot from 1980, which is firmly embedded in history.

There are some major differences between today’s Hugo rules and those in force in 1980. Each category has at least six finalists, and there are several more categories – Best Professional Editor and Best Dramatic Presentation have been split, and Best Fancast, Best Semiprozine and (for this year at least) Best Series have been added. The new EPH counting system means that the top six vote-getters are not necessarily the six finalists. We also had to invoke the new rule barring more than two stories from the same TV show from appearing on the final ballot. Not surprisingly, there were not enough nominations in Best Fancast category to make it worth while proceeding with it for Timewarp purposes.

In several categories, one or more nominees received sufficient nominations to qualify as a finalist, but which would have been omitted from the final ballot under the current rules if they had been in force in 1980. The normal practice for the Hugos is to publish notes on such removals only after the Hugo votes have taken place and the awards presented. As there will be no such vote in the 1980 Timewarp project, the Timewarp Coordinators are publishing the notes on eligibility decisions now.

The Timewarp Coordinators are still finalising the presentation of the full EPH counts of the last ten rounds for each category, and anticipate being able to publish them soon. Meanwhile, here is the final ballot as it would have emerged from the nominations submitted in the 1980 Timewarp Project.

BEST NOVEL

  • The Fountains of Paradise, by Arthur C. Clarke (Gollancz /
    Harcourt Brace Jovanovich)
  • Harpist in the Wind, by Patricia A. McKillip (Atheneum Books)
  • The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, by Douglas Adams (Pan Books)
  • Titan, by John Varley (Berkley/Putnam)
  • Kindred, by Octavia Butler (Doubleday)
  • Roadmarks, by Roger Zelazny (Del Rey / Ballantine)

(30 ballots submitted, 40 works nominated)

Comment: The real 1980 Hugo ballot included The Fountains of Paradise (which won), Harpist in the Wind and Titan, but also Jem by Frederik Pohl and On Wings of Song by Thomas M. Disch.

BEST NOVELLA

  • “Enemy Mine”, by Barry B. Longyear (Isaac Asimov’s Science Fiction Magazine, September 1979)
  • “Far Rainbow”, by Arkady & Boris Strugatsky (first US publication, in 1979, was Far Rainbow / The Second Invasion From Mars, Macmillan; originally published by Mir in 1963)
  • “Mars Masked”, by Frederik Pohl (Isaac Asimov’s Science Fiction Magazine, March 1979)
  • “The Moon Goddess and Son”, by Donald Kingsbury (Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact, December 1979)
  • “Palely Loitering”, by Christopher Priest (The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, January 1979)
  • “The Tale of Gorgik”, by Samuel R. Delany (Asimov’s SF Adventure Magazine, Summer 1979; Tales of Neveryon, Bantam Books)

(22 ballots submitted, 18 works nominated)

Notes:
“Fireship”, by Joan D. Vinge (Analog) received enough nominations to be on the final ballot, but is ineligible due to 1978 publication.
“Palely Loitering” received nominations both for Best Novella and for Best Novelette, in both 1980 and in the Timewarp. In 1980 it received more nominations in the Best Novelette category, and the Hugo administrators therefore located it there, commenting that this was the appropriate length. For the 1980 Timewarp, however, it received more nominations for Best Novella than for Best Novelette, and in addition the Timewarp Coordinators believe that it is within the permitted length variation for Best Novella, so it is included in that category instead.

Comment: “Enemy Mine” (which won) and “The Moon Goddess and the Son” were on the real 1980 Hugo ballot for Best Novella; so were “Songhouse” by Orson Scott Card, “Ker-Plop” by Ted Reynolds and “The Battle of the Abaco Reefs” by Hilbert Schenck. As noted above, “Palely Loitering” was a Best Novelette finalist in 1980.

BEST NOVELETTE

  • “The Ancient Mind At Work”, by Suzy McKee Charnas (Omni, February 1979)
  • “Fireflood”, by Vonda N. McIntyre (The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, November 1979)
  • “Galatea Galanta”, by Alfred Bester (Omni, April 1979)
  • “Out There Where The Big Ships Go”, by Richard Cowper (The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, August 1979)
  • “The Pathways of Desire”, by Ursula K. Le Guin (New Dimensions Science Fiction Number 9, ed. Robert Silverberg, Harper & Row)
  • “Sandkings”, by George R. R. Martin (Omni, August 1979)
  • “The Woman Who Loved the Moon”, by Elizabeth A. Lynn (Amazons!, ed. Jessica Amanda Salmonson, DAW Books)

(22 ballots submitted, nominating 24 works)

Note:
A tie for sixth place meant seven finalists in this category.

Comment: The real 1980 ballot had six finalists, including “Sandkings” (which won) and “Firefloood”. The other four were “Options”, by John Varley,  “Homecoming” by Barry B. Longyear, “The Locusts” by Larry Niven and Steven Barnes and “Palely Loitering” by Christopher Priest (see above).

BEST SHORT STORY

  • “Daisy, in the Sun”, by Connie Willis” (Galileo, November 1979)
  • “The Extraordinary Voyages of Amélie Bertrand”, by Joanna Russ (The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, September 1979)
  • “Red as Blood”, by Tanith Lee (The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, July 1979)
  • “Unaccompanied Sonata”, by Orson Scott Card (Omni, March 1979)
  • “War Beneath the Tree”, by Gene Wolfe (Omni, December 1979)
  • “The Way of Cross and Dragon”, by George R. R. Martin (Omni, June 1979)

(18 ballots submitted, nominating 23 works)

Comment: Again, the real 1980 ballot had three of these, “The Way of Cross and Dragon” (which won), “Unaccompanied Sonata” and “Daisy, in the Sun”. It also included “Can These Bones Live?” by Ted Reynolds and “giANTS” by Edward Bryant.

BEST RELATED WORK

  • Barlowe’s Guide to Extraterrestrials, by Wayne Douglas Barlowe and Ian Summers (Workman Publishing)
  • In Memory Yet Green : The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1920-1954, by Isaac Asimov (Doubleday)
  • The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams and Their Friends , by Humphrey Carpenter (Houghton Mifflin)
  • The Language of the Night: Essays on Fantasy and Science Fiction , by Ursula K. Le Guin, edited and with introductions by Susan Wood (G. P. Putnam’s Sons)
  • The Science Fiction Encyclopedia / The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction: An Illustrated A to Z, ed. Peter Nicholls (Doubleday / Granada)
  • The World of Science Fiction: 1926-1976: The History of a Subculture, by Lester del Rey (Del Rey / Ballantine)

(20 ballots submitted, nominating 19 works)

Comment: The real 1980 ballot for Best Related Non-Fiction Book included The Science Fiction Encyclopedia (which won), In Memory Yet Green, Barlowe’s Guide to Extraterrestrials by Wayne Barlowe and Ian Summers and The Language of the Night ; it also included Wonderworks by Michael Whelan.

BEST GRAPHIC STORY

  • Alien: The Illustrated Story, by Archie Goodwin and Walt Simonson (Heavy Metal)
  • The Day The Law Died, by John Wagner” 2000 AD (86-95)”
  • Invincible Iron Man 129-137: Demon In A Bottle, by David Micheline, Bob Layton & John Romita Jr (Marvel)
  • Jeremiah, by Herman Huppen (Le Lombard)
  • Micronauts #1-12, by Bill Mantlo and Michael Golden
  • Valhalla: Cry Wolf, by Peter Madsen
  • X-Men 125-8: The Proteus Saga, by Chris Claremont & John Byrne (Marvel)

(9 ballots submitted, nominating 18 works)

Notes:
Superman vs Muhammad Ali, by Denny O’Neil, and “X-Men #111”, by Chris Claremont, both received enough nominations to be on the final ballot but are ineligible due to 1978 publication.
The Uncanny X-Men as a series received enough nominations to be on the final ballot, but is deemed ineligible because an internal X-Men story line also qualified for the final ballot with more votes.

Comment: there was no equivalent category in 1980.

BEST DRAMATIC PRESENTATION, LONG FORM

  • Alien, directed by Ridley Scott, produced by Gordon Carroll, David Giler and Walter Hill, screenplay by Dan O’Bannon (20th Century Fox)
  • Mad Max, directed by George Miller, produced by Byron Kennedy, screenplay by James McCausland and George Miller (Kennedy Miller Productions/Mad Max Films/Crossroads)
  • Star Trek: The Motion Picture, directed by Robert Wise, produced by Gene Roddenberry, screenplay by Harold Livingston (Paramount)
  • Stalker directed by Andrei Tarkovsky, produced by Aleksandra Demidova, written by Arkadi Strugatsky and Boris Strugatsky (Mosfilm)
  • The Muppet Movie directed by James Frawley, produced by Jim Henson, written by Jack Burns and Jerry Juhl (Associated Film)
  • Time After Time directed by Nicholas Meyer, produced by Herb Jaffe, screenplay by Nicholas Meyer (Warner Brothers)

(23 ballots submitted, nominating 24 works)

BEST DRAMATIC PRESENTATION, SHORT FORM

  • Battlestar Galactica: The Hand of God, produced by Glen A. Larson, directed and written by Donald Bellisario (ABC)
  • Blake’s 7: Star One produced (and directed) by David Maloney, written by Chris Boucher (BBC)
  • Doctor Who: City of Death produced by Graham Williams, directed by    Michael Hayes, written by “David Agnew” (pseudonym for David Fisher, Douglas Adams and Graham Williams) (BBC)
  • Doctor Who: Destiny of the Daleks produced by Graham Williams, directed by Ken Grieve, written by Terry Nation (BBC)
  • The Incredible Hulk: The Snare produced by James D. Parritt, directed by Frank Orsatti, written by Richard Matheson & Thomas E. Szollosi (Universal Television)
  • Sapphire & Steel: Escape Through a Crack in Time: Part 1 produced and directed by Shaun O’Riordan, written by P.J. Hammond (Associated Television)

(10 ballots submitted, nominating 21 works)

Notes:

Mad Max, perhaps surprisingly, is less than 90 minutes in length. However, all of its nominations were in the Long Form category and the Timewarp Coordinators decided to keep it there.

Doctor Who: City of Death, Doctor Who: Destiny of the Daleks and Doctor Who: Nightmare of Eden all received equal numbers of nominations in both Long Form and Short Form categories. In keeping with recent Hugo tradition, although all three are longer than 90 minutes, the Timewarp Coordinators moved them to Short Form.

We then faced another problem: both Doctor Who: Destiny of the Daleks and Doctor Who: Nightmare of Eden received enough nominations to be on the final ballot in joint sixth place. (One for casual, one for best, perhaps.) But Doctor Who: City of Death received rather more nominations than either, and also (easily) qualified for the final ballot . Under the new rules, no more than two stories from any one show are allowed to be on the ballot.

In a real life Hugo situation, we would have consulted the show-runners, but unfortunately neither Graham Williams nor Douglas Adams is now available for consultation. The 1980 Timewarp Coordinators therefore chose Destiny of the Daleks rather than Nightmare of Eden for the 1980 Timewarp final ballot, because we like it better. (No offense meant at all!)

Comment: The real 1980 Hugo ballot for Best Dramatic Presentation included five feature-length films. Four of these made it as Timewarp finalists for Long Form category – Alien (which won the 1980 Hugo), Star Trek: The Motion Picture and The Muppet Movie. The other was Disney’s The Black Hole.

BEST EDITOR, SHORT FORM

  • Ben Bova
  • Terry Carr
  • Edward Ferman
  • David Hartwell
  • Stanley Schmidt
  • George H. Scithers

(7 ballots submitted, nominating 12 candidates)

Note:
Robert Asprin received enough nominations to be on the final ballot, but had published only one anthology by 1979 and is therefore ineligible.
David Hartwell scrapes into eligibility thanks to acknowledged editorial work on L.W. Currey’s 1979 collection, Science Fiction and Fantasy Authors: A Bibliography of First Printings of Their Fiction and Selected Nonfiction.

BEST EDITOR, LONG FORM

  • Jim Baen
  • Terry Carr
  • Judith Lynn Del-Rey
  • Lester Del Rey
  • David G. Hartwell
  • Pat LoBrutto
  • Terri Windling
  • Donald A. Wollheim

(4 ballots submitted, nominating 9 candidates)

Note: Beth Meacham received enough nominations to be on the final ballot, but did not edit any books in 1979 and is therefore ineligible. (The Timewarp Coordinators are grateful to Ms Meacham and to Pat LoBrutto for clarifying their eligibility status for us.)

Comment: Four of the finalists for the real 1980 Hugo Best Professional Editor ballot are on the Short Form list above – they are George H. Scithers (who won in 1980), Edward L. Ferman, Ben Bova and Stanley Schmidt. The fifth of the real 1980 finalists, James P. Baen, is on the Long Form list above.

BEST PROFESSIONAL ARTIST

  • Christopher Foss
  • Frank Kelly Freas
  • H.R. Giger
  • Rowena Morrill
  • Boris Vallejo
  • Michael Whelan

(13 ballots submitted, nominating 20 candidates)

Comment: The real 1980 Hugo ballot included Michael Whelan (who won) and Boris Vallejo. It also included Vincent Di Fate, Stephen Fabian and Paul Lehr.

BEST SEMIPROZINE

  • Fantasy Tales, edited by Stephen Jones and David A Sutton
  • Locus, edited by Charlie Brown
  • Science Fiction Chronicle, edited by Andrew Porter
  • Science Fiction Review, edited by Richard E. Geis
  • Starlog, edited by Howard Zimmerman
  • Thrust, edited by D. Douglas Fratz
  • Science Literature, edited by Yang Xiao

(11 ballots submitted, nominating 10 candidates)

BEST FANZINE

  • Ansible, edited by David Langford
  • File 770, edited by Mike Glyer
  • Janus, edited by Janice Bogstad and Jeanne Gomoll
  • Pyrotechnics, edited by Jeff Duntemann
  • Rune, edited by Lee Pelton and Carol Kennedy
  • Starship, edited by Andrew Porter

(12 ballots submitted, nominating 13 candidates)

Notes:
Best Semiprozine and Best Fanzine caused us the most trouble by far of any categories.
Science Literature is the magazine now known as Science Fiction World, aka Sci Fi World and its one nomination – enough to get it on the final ballot – was made under the current title rather than the 1979 title.
File 770 received enough votes to received enough nominations to qualify for the final ballot in both Best Fanzine and Best Semiprozine. The Timewarp Coordinators believe that it falls under the current Fanzine definition, even in 1979.
Locus, Science Fiction Chronicle and Science Fiction Review all received enough nominations to qualify for the final ballot in both Best Fanzine and Best Semiprozine. The Timewarp Coordinators believe that they fall under the current Semiprozine definition, even in 1979.
Thrust was nominated only in Best Fanzine, but was clearly a semiprozine under current definition by 1979, and the Timewarp Coordinators have therefore re-located its nomination to Best Semiprozine.

Comment: All of the real 1980 finalists for Best Fanzine appear on one or other of the above lists – Locus (which won), Science Fiction Review and Thrust as Best Semiprozine finalists, and File 770 and Janus as Best Fanzine finalists.

BEST FANCAST

Insufficient nominations, not very surprisingly.
(3 ballots submitted, nominating 4 candidates)

BEST FAN WRITER

  • Richard E. Geis
  • Mike Glyer
  • Arthur D. Hlavaty
  • David Langford
  • Bob Shaw
  • Susan Wood

(13 ballots submitted, nominating 10 candidates)

Comment:  The above list adds Susan Wood to the real 1980 Hugo ballot in this category. Bob Shaw won in real life.

BEST FAN ARTIST

  • Alexis Gilliland
  • Jeanne Gomoll
  • Joan Hanke-Woods
  • Lars “LON” Olsson
  • Victoria Poyser
  • Bill Rotsler

(8 ballots submitted, nominating 11 candidates)

Note:
Michael Whelan received enough nominations to be on the final ballot in this category, but was clearly a professional artist by 1978, and received more nominations as such.

Comment: The real 1980 Hugo ballot in this category had six finalists – all of the above, with the exception of Lars “LON” Olsson and the addition of Stu Shiffman. Alexis Gilliland was the winner.

BEST SERIES (and qualifying 1979 volume)

  • The Count of Saint Germain (Blood Games), by Chelsea Quinn Yarbro (St. Martin’s Press)
  • The Dragonriders of Pern (Dragondrums), by Anne McCaffrey (Del Rey / Atheneum)
  • The Faded Sun (The Faded Sun: Kutath), by C.J. Cherryh (DAW)
  • The Merlin series (The Last Enchantment), by Mary Stewart (Hodder & Stoughton)
  • The Morgaine cycle (Fires of Azeroth), by C. J. Cherryh (DAW)
  • The Riddle-Master trilogy (Harpist in the Wind), by Patricia MacKillip (Atheneum)

(11 ballots cast for 18 candidates)

Comment: There was no Best Series category in the real 1980 Hugo ballot.

BEST NEW WRITER

  • Lynn Abbey
  • Diane Duane
  • Karen G. Jollie
  • Megan Lindholm (Robin Hobb)
  • Barry B. Longyear
  • Somtow Sucharitkul / S.P. Somtow

(13 ballots submitted, nominating 11 candidates)

Comment: The real 1980 John W. Campbell Award for best New Writer went to Barry B. Longyear. The six finalists were the above, plus Alan Ryan and minus what in retrospect seems a surprising oversight: Megan Lindholm (Robin Hobb), whose first story was published in 1979.

The Timewarp Coordinators are grateful to all who participated in this exercise, and particularly to the DevOps Division of Worldcon 75 for innovative coding solutions.

[File 770 editor’s note: Whyte and Fozard included several renderings of titles in Chinese and Russian, but unfortunately Wordpress reproduces Chinese and Cyrillic characters as question marks, therefore I have not been able to include them in the posted version.]

The 1980 Timewarp Project

1980 Hugo Award. Photo by Michael Benveniste, via The Hugo Awards website.

1980 Hugo Award. Photo by Michael Benveniste, via The Hugo Awards website.

By Nicholas Whyte and Colette Fozard, Worldcon 75 Hugo Administration: Next year’s Hugo nominations will be the most complex ever, with six finalists for each award, a new tallying system, and a special category for Best Series. We are developing new software solutions for the Hugos – and we need to test them.

We are therefore looking back as well as looking forward – and we are inviting Filers to think themselves back to 1979, and the SF and Fantasy of that year, for the purpose of giving us fresh data to test the software with.

In order to avoid any confusion about the purpose of the exercise — specifically, to avert any suggestion that this might be a re-do of the 1980 Hugos — we are not pushing the 1980 Timewarp Project more widely on social media. At the same time feel free to quietly invite others to participate.

Please direct any comments or queries to timewarp-coordinators@worldcon.fi.

Why 1980?

This was, frankly, a fairly arbitrary decision. We wanted to choose a year which was not too far back in the mists of time, but also not so recent as to reopen unnecessary controversy. By fortunate coincidence, the full counting details from 1980, including the long lists, have been preserved at smofinfo.com/wsfs/Hugos/1980%20–%20Hugo%20voting%20details.pdf so we can see what fans at the time nominated. (Of course there were different categories then — the soon-to-be-abandoned Gandalf Award, only one Dramatic Presentation category, only one Professional Editor category, “Non-Fiction” rather than “Related Work”, no Graphic Story, no Semiprozine, no Fancast, no Series.)

The 1980 Timewarp Project obviously doesn’t replace or in any way invalidate the real historic 1980 Hugo nominations, final ballot or winners, least of all our gracious host here at File 770 – it just helps the Worldcon 75 Hugo administrators test the systems in advance of the 2017 nominations and vote. The Hugo Awards for 1980 were presented at Noreascon Two in Boston; those rewards remain part of history and will never be changed.

So what are you doing?

From 17 to 31 October, you are invited to make nominations for the Hugo categories under the rules for 2017, but with respect to the state of the genre and fandom of 1979. Anyone can nominate, but only electronic nominations will be accepted.

We will publish the full dataset of submitted nominations (though without submitters’ names attached) and the final Timewarp Ballot that would have emerged from those nominations if the current rules had been in force in 1980. We will not then proceed to any further vote – the Timewarp Ballot, and the dataset of nominations, are the end of the process.

Please go ahead and get your participation login at https://1980.worldcon.fi/ – comments welcome here or via the email address above.

MEMORY-JOGGING RESOURCES

And more generally:

Hugo Voting Rules Proposals Sponsored By Harris, Buff, Standlee, Others

Mini Hugo rocket carried into space and photgraphed by astronaut Kjell Lindgren in 2015.

Mini Hugo rocket carried into space and photgraphed by astronaut Kjell Lindgren in 2015.

Apart from the discussions Jameson Quinn has been leading here, another group of fans has been working on ideas for reforming the Hugo voting process. Yesterday they published the drafts of their three main motions and an amendment to EPH (given its first passage last year) as a Google document.

The three main motions do these things:

(1) Change the deadline you must be a Worldcon member to be eligible to nominate from January 31 to December 31 of the previous year.

(2) Restrict eligibility to nominate to members of the current and preceding Worldcon.

(3) Add a second round that allows members to vote out something that makes the initial long list (“Three Stage Voting”).

Colin Harris (co-chair of the 2005 Worldcon), Warren Buff, Kevin Standlee (co-chair of the 2002 Worldcon), Nicholas Whyte, and Colette Fozard each sponsor at least one of the several motions. Harris explains:

We plan to submit the motions officially in about a week; we are publishing them now to encourage discussion, rather than because we expect to change the text — but of course if people point out important things we’ve missed, we’ll take the opportunity to fix any issues.

Commenting specifically about the Three-Stage-Voting proposal, Harris says:

To be clear, my stance as the main mover on 3SV is simple. I wish this change was not necessary, but I believe that EPH and the other proposals already in hand will not achieve the necessary outcomes. In particular, I believe that guaranteeing a couple of broadly acceptable finalists per category is simply not a high enough bar for “success” in restoring the integrity, reputation and stability of the awards. I do not know if 3SV will pass, but I believe that the Business Meeting should have the opportunity to discuss this more direct option for tackling manipulation of the nomination process.

The text of the proposals follows the jump.

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