Pixel Scroll 7/1/17 When A Scroll Loves A Pixel

(1) THE FANS CANNA STAND THE STRAIN. The show’s not on the air yet and they’re already bumping off beloved characters? Here’s what io9 is reporting: Game of Thrones Inspired Star Trek: Discovery to Kill More Main Characters”.

So, which characters are most likely to attend the Red Shirt Wedding? Some online speculation suggests that Jason Isaacs’ Captain Lorca will be the first to go, possibly after turning on his crew; below-the-line comments for almost any article on the show are full of fans betting on Lorca’s death. Even Vanity Fair has come out and said the dude is probably a dead man walking.

Didn’t this actually start with The Sopranos? 

(2) REBOOT AND REVIVAL. SyFy Wire reports two Jetsons projects are in the works, one animated, one live-action.

Following on the heels of the announcement that The Jetsons was orbiting Warner Bros.’ creative platter as a new animated feature film comes new info that the futuristic family will soon grace the small-screen airwaves in a fresh live-action adaptation.

It’d definitely be interesting to check out a live-action version of the sparkly shiny future of Astro City, and we look forward to seeing how this project develops. According to the announcement, this fresh take on The Jetsons will be set 100 years from now and will have a comedic edge similar to the classic ’60s cartoon.

Sources have confirmed that Warners has enlisted the assistance of Family Guy executive producer Gary Janetti to put the polish on this reboot and will start shopping the project around to interested broadcast stations and major cable networks next month. Janetti will also serve as an executive producer, with Forest Gump’s Robert Zemeckis and Castaway’s Jack Rapke.

(3) SHATNER. In The Truth Is in the Stars, William Shatner “sits down with scientists, innovators and celebrities to discuss how the optimism of ‘Star Trek’ influenced multiple generations.” The show is available on Netflix, and was aired a few months ago in Canada.

(4) SAN DIEGO HOLDS ONTO CON FOUR MORE YEARS. “Comic-Con is here to stay — through 2021” – the San Diego Union-Tribune has the story.

Despite dashed hopes for an expanded convention center, Comic-Con International has agreed to a new three-year contract that will keep the always sold-out pop culture gathering in San Diego through 2021.

The new three-year deal, announced Friday morning by Mayor Kevin Faulconer, hinged, as it has in previous contracts, on persuading local hotels to keep a lid on room rates over the term of the contract. The current contract, which will expire after next year’s show, covered two years and also included provisions for controlling what are always high room rates during the four-day July convention….

As much as hotel rates matter, so too does diminishing space for the Con, said Comic-Con International spokesman David Glanzer, noting that negotiations for the contract extension had been ongoing for a year.

“We have had to cap our attendance for many, many years so our income level is different and we have to be aware of that,” he said during a morning news conference outside the center. “But again, with the efforts of the mayor, the Tourism Authority, the hoteliers, we’re able to make what we have work.”

Glanzer, though, wasn’t willing to guarantee that the convention will always remain in San Diego.

“We’ve made it very, very clear we would love to stay here, but the truth of the matter is we have operated shows in Oakland, in San Francisco, San Jose, Los Angeles and in Anaheim,” he said. “If the worst thing were to happen, and that is we had to leave, we all can still live in San Diego and the convention can be in another city. That’s not what we want. And I’m glad we’re calling San Diego home for another three years.”

(5) THE BOOK OF TAFF. David Langford announces  TAFF Trip Report Anthology (unfinished reports) is available as a free download —

I’m rather pleased to have published this ebook at last on the TAFF freebies page, 130,000 words of chapters/fragments from abandoned TAFF reports and teaser chapters from several still in progress.

And at the TAFF freebies page you’ll also find some completed trip reports, as well as other items of a fanhistorical or mischievous bent.

(6) VISI-PHONE CALL FOR YOU. The Traveler from Galactic Journey will be calling from 1962 again on July 29, this time to discuss the Hugo Awards: “Take Two!  (Vote for the 1962 Hugos at the Galactic Journey Tele-Conference)”. Sign up so you can listen in and participate.

The 20th Annual WorldCon is coming, Labor Day Weekend, 1962.  Every year, attendees of this, the most prestigious science fiction convention, gather to choose the worthy creations of the prior year that will win the Hugo Award.

But if you can’t make it to Chicago, don’t worry.  You still get to vote.

Galactic Journey is putting on its second live Tele-Conference via Visi-Phone for the purpose of gathering as many fellow travelers together in one virtual place.  Our mission – to select the best novels, stories, films, etc. of 1961.  Maybe they’ll make the official World Con ballot, maybe they won’t.  Who cares?  It’s what we like that matters.  And if you’re not completely up on all the works of last year, check out our Galactic Stars nominations for 1961.

To participate in the Tele-Conference, send in your RSVP …and you’ll receive a ballot.  Then sit tight, and on July 29, 1962 at 11am, tune in to the broadcast.

(7) SIMULATING MARS. On July 20, Moon landing day, KPCC will host “Red-hot real estate —Living on Mars” in Pasadena.

How will humans survive on Mars? No food, no free oxygen and no stepping outside to enjoy the view without a spacesuit. Mars makes Antarctica look like a tropical resort. Nevertheless, scientists have found water below the surface, where life might be hiding. Engineers and scientists are seeking solutions that will enable people to visit the red planet as soon as the 2030s. Will a permanent station or colony follow? Or should Mars be off limits to all but robots?

Join Planetary Radio Live host Mat Kaplan for a fascinating conversation with Mars experts as the Planetary Society returns to KPCC’s Crawford Family Forum. We’ll also visit with the crew of the HI-SEAS (Hawai’i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation), a group of men and women who are simulating an eight-month Mars excursion on a Hawaiian mountainside. Their experience is one more step toward turning Earthlings into Martians.

(8) PADDINGTON BEGINS. Radio Times in its June 28 issue reprints “Michael Bond: how Paddington Bear came to be”, which originally appeared when the movie Paddington came out in 2014.  He discusses how he started as a writer, how Paddington is really a refugee and how his parents would have dealt with refugees, and how an American told him, “I’m so used to Paddington being the name of a bear, it seems a funny name for a railway station.”

At the time I was a television cameraman with the BBC, so my writing had to be squeezed into days when I was off-duty. One such day found me sitting with a blank sheet of paper in my typewriter and not an idea in my head, only too well aware that the ball was in my court. Nobody else was going to put any words down for me.

Glancing round in search of inspiration my gaze came to rest on Paddington, who gave me a hard stare from the mantelpiece, and the muse struck, along with what was destined to become the equivalent of a literary catchphrase. Suppose a real live bear ended up at Paddington station? Where might it have sprung from, and why? If it had any sense it would find a quiet spot near the Lost Property Office and hope for the best.

I knew exactly how my own parents would react if they saw it, particularly if it had a label round its neck, like a refugee in the last war. There are few things sadder in life than a refugee. My mother wouldn’t have hesitated to give it a home, while my father, who was a civil servant to his fingertips, would have been less enthusiastic in case he was doing something against the law.

(9) SANDERS OBIT. William Sanders (1942-2017), an sf writer and former senior editor of the now defunct online magazine Helix SF, died June 30 reports Lawrence Watt-Evans.

He published several dozen short stories of which the most famous was “The Undiscovered” (Asimov’s Mar 1997), shortlisted for the Hugo, Nebula, and Theodore Sturgeon awards, and winner of the Sidewise Award for Alternate History. A second story, “Empire”, also won the Sidewise Award.

About his books the Wikipedia Wikipedia says:

Sanders has written several novels, including Journey to Fusang (1988), The Wild Blue and the Gray (1991) and The Ballad of Billy Badass & the Rose of Turkestan (1999). The first two are alternate histories with a humorous bent while the last is a fantasy novel.


  • July 1, 1930 Halloween producer Moustapha Al Akkad is born in Aleppo, Syria

(11) WE’RE HERE TO HELP YOU. Facebook drone in successful test flight.

Facebook has completed a second test of a solar-powered drone designed to bring internet access to remote parts of the world.

The drone – dubbed Aquila – flew for one hour and 46 minutes in Arizona.

On Aquila’s maiden voyage last summer, the autopilot system was confused by heavy wind and crash-landed.

This time, the drone flew at an altitude of 3,000ft, a long way from Facebook’s intended 60,000ft goal.

(12) WEAPONS HISTORY. Visiting Peenemünde: “The German village that changed the war”.

Peenemünde looks out across the mouth of the River Peene where it drifts into the Baltic Sea. In 1935, engineer Wernher von Braun pinpointed the village, which offered a 400km testing range off the German coast, as the perfect, secret place to develop and test rockets.

Frantic building work began on the world’s largest and most modern rearmament centre. About 12,000 people worked on the first-ever cruise missiles and fully functioning large-scale rockets at the site, which spanned an area of 25 sq km. The research and development carried out in Peenemünde was not only crucial to the course of the biggest war in history, but impacted the future of weapons of mass destruction, as well as space travel.

(13) FAKED NEWS. Spotting patch jobs: “The hidden signs that can reveal a fake photo”.

Research suggests that regardless of what you might think about your own abilities to spot a hoax, most of us are pretty bad at it. Farid, however, looks at photographs in a different way to most people. As a leading expert in digital forensics and image analysis, he scrutinises them for the almost imperceptible signs that suggest an image has been manipulated.

One trick he has picked up over time is to check the points of light in people’s eyes. “If you have two people standing next to each other in a photograph, then we will often see the reflection of the light source (such as the Sun or a camera flash) in their eyes,” he explains. “The location, size, and colour of this reflection tells us about the location, size, and colour of the light source. If these properties of the light source are not consistent, then the photo may be a composite.”

(14) WU CAMPAIGN. Hugo-winner Frank Wu endorses a candidate for Congress. And the cost of winning will not be insignificant.

My wife, Brianna, is running for US Congress.

Election night on 2016 was a disaster, bringing many of our worst fears to life. My wife Brianna Wu decided to take a stand. She’d worked her whole life to build a software company, but it all felt hollow with Trump in the White House. Marching wasn’t enough.  Protesting wasn’t enough. So, she decided to run for US Congress in Massachusetts District 8. I know it will be hard on our family, but I believe in her. Our country will not survive on its current path.


(15) THE SMOKING LAMP IS LIT. Alexandra Erin wrote a series of tweets about Anita Sarkeesian’s handling of YouTube harasser Carl Benjamin at VidCon. Click this tweet it and it will take you to the thread. Here are some excerpts:

(16) TODAY’S PRO HEALTH TIP. From John Scalzi at the Denver Comic Con.

(17) ADVANCE LOOK AT WESTERCON. If you want to get an early start on Westercon 70, happening next week in Tempe, AZ, the souvenir book is already available as a print-on-demand publication through Amazon. The “Look Inside” feature also lets you peek at random pages – I got an eyeful of the filk program schedule, for example. (I hope that’s curable.)

(18) DIMMER SWITCH. And the country goes eclipse-crazy…. NPR says “A Total Eclipse Will Sweep The U.S. In August, And People Are Going Nuts For It”.

The mayor of Hopkinsville, Ky., says his town has spent more than half a million dollars preparing for the event since learning 10 years ago that the area would be in the path of totality.

The town even has an eclipse coordinator.

“It’ll look like twilight outside. You’ll be able to see stars. Four planets will be visible — Venus, Jupiter, Mars and Mercury. You’ll notice the temperature drop about 5 to 10 degrees,” the coordinator, Brooke Jung, told the AP. “You’ll notice that animals will get a little disoriented. Birds will think that it’s nighttime and go in to roost. Some of the flowers and plants that close up at night will close up.”

“If it’s cloudy, then we’ll just have to deal with that reality as best we can and help people get to other locations,” Mayor Carter Hendricks told the AP. “But, if somehow we overprepare and we’re underwhelmed by the crowd size, that’s a big concern for me.”

[Thanks to Chip Hitchcock, Martin Morse Wooster, Frank Wu, Cat Eldridge, David Langford, Danny Sichel, Michael J. Walsh, and John King Tarpinian for some of these stories. Title credit goes to File 770 contributing editor of the day, the mellifluous Steve Davidson.]

83 thoughts on “Pixel Scroll 7/1/17 When A Scroll Loves A Pixel

  1. 9) *SIGH* Journey To Fusang and The Wild Blue and the Gray were wonderful!

    Requiescat In Pace

  2. A Fifth!

    18) I did think about the Eclipse and chasing it a couple of years ago. Subsequently Helsinki won the Worldcon, and then subsequently, the DUFF trip. So I will sadly not have the time or means to chase the eclipse.

    9). Nuts. Rest in Peace.

  3. Kip W. Driving me nuts. The asterisks are where they belong but don’t display. I’ll just cut that whole line.

  4. I have hotel reservations the night before the eclipse for a town about a half hour drive OUTSIDE totality in downstate Illinois. (The hotel prices inside totality, even for cheap chain hotels, were three or four times as high.) I figure we may well have to drive some distance to get free of cloud cover anyway, so as long as we’re close, we’re good; we’ll have until the afternoon to find a good viewing spot.

  5. (15) And in the responses you see the usual band of sea-lioning harassment apologists JAQing off in an attempt to defend Barbell of Gonad.

  6. Aaron: (15) And in the responses you see the usual band of sea-lioning harassment apologists JAQing off in an attempt to defend Barbell of Gonad.

    Any chance we can get them to shake John Scalzi’s other hand? That ought to be quite a potent bioweapon after a day greeting people at a con.

  7. #9.

    Shit. I remember Journey to Fusang and The Wild Blue and Grey very fondly. The world is a poorer place for his passing.

    Time to see if I can swing replacement copies of Sanders’ works and the ones I didn’t read.

  8. (9): Sanders’ “When This World is All On Fire” and “Dry Bones” are also great stories. RIP.

  9. It’d definitely be interesting to check out a live-action version of the sparkly shiny future of Astro City,

    I tend to agree.

    The Jetsons live in Orbit City, as it happens, but for some reason, I’d still like to see a live-action Astro City…

  10. (15) I’ve referred to the harrasser as Ozymandias but Erin’s names are much better, e.g. “Calgon of Kumquat”.

  11. Westercon’s totally not next week. Unless I happen to be at the wrong convention right now in Tempe :-/

  12. (2) Live action Jetsons sounds stupid. I thought live action Flintstones was a good idea, even if it didn’t work out like that.

    (3) I don’t have Netflix or live in Canada, but didn’t he do this once before? A few years ago, under a different title? At least once before?

    (6) I’ll give it a shot. But what date were the nominees known by in 1962? They had to allow for more time back then, what with snail-mail voting, right? Is there a Standlee-ancestor signal?

    (14, 15) You go, ladies. Also points for “Flagon of Alcopop”.

    (16) Practical advice.

    (17) If I had any place to stay for free in Oregon, even out on the coast, I’d go. But alas, we do not have moneys. Any Filer have a couch or some floor? All we ask is use of the bathroom, a little sleep, and a place to park the car the night before and night of.

    @Bonnie: Nope, I’m reading a lot of people’s thoughts on the Hugos.

  13. Mike Glyer on July 1, 2017 at 7:30 pm said:

    Any chance we can get them to shake John Scalzi’s other hand? That ought to be quite a potent bioweapon after a day greeting people at a con

    To throwback to the previous scroll, do you want zombies? Because that’s how you probably get zombies.

    Now I feel bad for comparing zombies to Carl Benjamin. Zombies follow a consistent motivation and are beyond recognition of the harm they’re doing, while Carl’s motivations swing to whatever concern trolling will get him the most youtube clicks to boost his narcissism regardless of who he hurts and sometimes because of it.

  14. Harassment isn’t some arcane mystery. It’s very easy to describe: harassment is the “I’M NOT TOUCHING YOU!” game, but less mature. It is the insistence that your target pay attention to you instead of doing something more important to them, coupled with an excuse for one’s actions that (in theory) will compel any authority figures to chastise your target for being “oversensitive” or “irrational” – thus aiding you – while allowing you to continue.

    The depressing part is that a pattern that transparent continues to work.

    (For anyone wondering where I’ve been, I’ve been dealing with a bad tooth. I was supposed to have it out Thursday, but my insurance forced a delay until this coming Wednesday, as Thursday was literally the last day of my waiting period and the oral surgeon didn’t work any of the days in between. At least I’m not missing work over the problem…)

  15. So in August, someone’s got to to run out into their street, shake their fist at the sky, scream ‘Feck off hell-bulb I’m trying to sleep!’ Then throw a potato, at the sun and go back inside as everything goes dark.

  16. @Bonnie – No. Thanks for continuing to post updates. I especially like them in cases where I have mixed feelings about a work or works, or extremely dislike something on the ballot.

  17. Bonnie McDaniel: I hope y’all don’t mind me doing this. I like to see how other people are voting.

    Thank you for posting this. I keep seeing people on Twitter link to their “reviews” of the Hugo finalists — and then when I click through, it turns out that they’ve only posted brief synopses with very little in the way of analysis or commentary. So I appreciate your reviews, which are actually helpful.

  18. @16: Sounds like a problem for the lefthanded; if the trail mix is that messy, it makes gripping a pen to do autographs non-trivial. Maybe he should just stick a small towel in his belt?

  19. 12. just to cover bases, lets not forget that much of the work at Peenemunde and supporting it was performed by slave labor.

    @Nigel: OMFG LOL! I’m getting a bag of spuds RIGHT NOW!

    Timing IS critical. I’m going to construct a simulated eclipse in my bathroom so I can practice. (Bathroom so the cleanup is a bit easier.)

    Will then tape for Filer’s and posterity. (The eclipse, not the practice.)

  20. I’m depressed to find out that Calgon of Kumquat makes $60k annually from his Patreon. That’s a decent living for doing nothing but making videos spewing hate.

    LOL on the potatoes!

    Kurt, I am also more interested in live action Astro City than Jetsons.

    Bonnie, I enjoy reviews.

  21. @Rev. Bob – Sorry to read that. I hope the tooth isn’t bothering you too much.

  22. Did the Jetsons have any connections to super-heroes like the Flintstones had to spies? I honestly don’t remember the plots to many of the Jetsons cartoons. I don’t think it was shown as much during the after school kids TV reruns.

    I can sort of see the Jetsons as a super team like The Incredibles or The First Family. You gotta figure that Rosie was some sort of Berserker kill-bot before she went into domestic service. Astro is obviously some sort of genetically modified super-genius dog. Jane was probably some sort of galactic grifter given the way she fleeces George every week.

  23. @kathodus: (2:30)

    Doing better, thanks most likely to the antibiotics. The formerly-severe swelling is now minimal at most, but I’m getting some irritation on my left leg. (Several years ago, I had a cellulitis infection there. It flares up once in a while; I’m not worried. The remaining antibiotics should squash that issue, but it’s still inconvenient in the now.)

    Meredith Month: Smashwords is currently having its author-opt-in summer sale, lasting the entire month of July. Participation and level are wholly determined by the author, who can list any or all of their works at 25%-100% off with four sitewide coupons. (If the chosen discount would bring the price under 99 cents, the coupon makes it free.) For example, J.B. Rogers, the erotica author I work with, has listed both of their “books” at 25% off and made two out of three short stories free. It’s important to note that Smashwords treats free-with-coupon differently than free-normally; with coupon, it counts as a purchase, so you have access to updates and redownloads.

    Because the authors control participation, the selection is likely to change all month long, so check early and often!

  24. @Jack – Oh, or keep the character backgrounds, but Rosie, Astro, and Jane are ex-cons hiding out pretending to be squares. Jane hooked up with George (using Rosie, disguised as a maid-bot, as a scout for possible marks) thinking it’d get them somewhere to hide in plain sight until they could drain his accounts and disappear permanently, but realized after living with him for a bit that he’s a decent person and completely fed up with the life of a corporate drone working under an abusive boss. She recruited him (after the requisite soul searching “you lied to me! You were going to betray me!” scene), and now they’re a family super-crime team, setting up a long con that will eventually bring down Spacely Space Sprockets, and transfer all its assets into a secret bank account in the Space Caymans.

    Elroy and Judy, George’s children from a previous relationship, harbor long-term resentment toward George’s boss for his abusive ways and petulant manner, and though they know a lot more than they let on (being kids, and natural snoops), they say nothing, occasionally “accidentally” saving the day by distracting George’s boss with childish antics at crucial moments. Eventually they come out and let their father and step-mother know that they fully support this endeavor.

  25. "You realize what you are implying? That we owe our human condition here to the intervention of Pixels?"

  26. (9) I’m sorry to hear about Sanders. I’d just been thinking a couple of weeks ago that I should see if he’d had anything out in recent years.

    I had several conversations with him via Usenet in 1999-2000. Yes, he was cantankerous–but I enjoyed those conversations a lot.

  27. Rev. Bob,
    You have my sympathies.

    Chip Hitchcock:
    @16: Sounds like a problem for the lefthanded; if the trail mix is that messy, it makes gripping a pen to do autographs non-trivial. Maybe he should just stick a small towel in his belt?

    It’s not just about messiness/stickiness from the trail-mix. For the microbiologically inclined, shaking hands with the hand you eat with while doing both is a good way of transferring new & interesting microbes from the people you shake hands with into your mouth.

  28. Just finished reading Penric and the Shaman; as expected, it was the somewhat lighter fare I wanted for a change after The Ballad of Black Tom.

    I’ve been thinking a bit about the Five Gods in Bujold’s stories, and the Seven Gods in A Song of Ice and Fire: Are there actually any polytheistic faiths with a long-term stable number of gods like that? Obviously, there is the holy trinity, but the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Celts, etc seem to have had a large and steadily expanding pantheon (I’m not sure what contemporary Hindu practice regarding expansion is, but they certainly have lots of gods). Do any people really pick a prime number of gods and stick to that?

  29. That’s an interesting question. My understanding is the Roman pantheon was more of a PR thing, and expanded per conquest, but I don’t know about the rest.

  30. I really like the Five Gods. Stable, covers all the bases, but doesn’t go into the hundreds or thousands that many polytheistic systems do. There were so many that the Romans had a set formula for “to which god it may concern hereabouts”.

    One or two seems the simplest. Less worry about who you need to ask/praise for things.

    If “The Jetsons” was of the pattern of “The Stainless Steel Rat” (which kathodus’ idea reminded me of, heavily), it’d be interesting. Not sure if the dog is in on the con, or if he’s just part of the cover.

    Not as good as Astro City, though.

  31. 1) Everything I hear about this makes me less likely to watch it. Though the trailer featuring Michelle Yeoh looked pretty good.

    12) I visited the Peenemünde museum, while I was at a conference at the nearby University of Greifswald a couple of years ago. Another fascinating and shudder inducing nearby place to visit is Prora on the island of Rügen, site of a gigantic Nazi beach resort, which was never finished. Even in its unfinished state, the remnants of the Prora resort are 2.5 kilometres long, the complete resort would have been 4.5 kilometres long.

  32. For something so huge, Prora was remarkably little known until approx. 2000. The site was appropriated by the military and access was restricted well into the 1990s. And for a while afterwards, no one quite knew what to do with 2.5 kilometres of crumbling concrete blocking a lovely beach front. Here are my photos of Prora BTW, suitably gloomy though that was due to the overcast sky that day.

  33. Cora, thanks for sharing the creepy pictures of Prora. It looks more like a prison than a resort to me.

  34. Are there actually any polytheistic faiths with a long-term stable number of gods like that?

    There are cases of gods being labelled as major ones within a larger polytheism — for instance, the Twelve Olympians of the Greeks, or the Trimurti (trinity) in Hinduism.

    The Seven Gods seem intended to echo the Christian trinity at least as much as polytheism, though.

  35. @Soon Lee — I hadn’t been thinking of germs — but my issue still stands for a left-hander. I wonder whether a towel soaked in an alcohol gel would be useful? I remember bottles of such gel at the doors to all the parties the year Wiscon had a plague later named something madisonii — but I also remember an MD saying they were useless.

  36. I can’t think of any polytheistic system which says ‘there are exactly this number of gods, and not nohow never any other beings that could be considered gods, at all’. And even when certain gods are singled out as major ones, that may be only for certain purposes – the Olympians don’t include Hades, for instance, or Cronus, who is important enough to have a planet named after him. (I’m not sure about the pantheon expanding by conquest, because often foreign gods were absorbed by being identified with Roman gods – as the Greeks had also done – though in some cases, as with Apollo, they could not find an equivalent.)

    I think the Five Gods also echo the Trinity – they are, as it were ‘this is what Christianity would be like if the persons of the Trinity were quite clearly and indisputably different gods’. Well, it’s speculative.. No reason for it to be just like a real-world religion.

  37. @Chip: “my issue still stands for a left-hander.”

    The hygienic advice to shake with one hand and eat with the other says nothing about which hand should be used for which. It applies to lefties as well as righties, unless you know of some secret southpaw-only form of disease prevention.

  38. @Rev. Bob
    Well, as a leftie, I do shake with my right & eat with my left.

    @Chip Hitchcock,
    That may be better. Kill effectiveness is a function of dose x time. One reason alcohol doesn’t work so well is because it evaporates so quickly.

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